Thursday 28th June
|Abstract 41: Dylan Adams
Musicking in Nature and the Nature of Musicking
Abstract 51: Ashley Cope
Montessori: simple activities to aid complex fine motor development
Abstract 59: Cathal O’Siochru
Don’t hate the player… hate the game!
|Abstract: 58 Sean Broome
The transformative power of education in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights
Abstract 18: Pamela de Bortoli
A New school for a New cinema: Learning and Teaching through Films in Brazilian Schools
Abstract 35: Sean Naughton
Binge Learning – A Conceptual-Developmental Model
|Room: D 1-036
|Abstract 11: Richard Woolley
Towards an inclusive understanding of bullying: identifying conceptions and practice in the primary school workforce.
Abstract 42: Heather Knight
Beyond Silence and Fear: Researching approaches to anti-racist school practice in the South West of England
Abstract 36: Zeta Brown
Aspiring to Higher Education? The complex views of secondary students
Conflict and Identity
|Abstract 2: El Hadj Moussa Benmoussa
The political representations in post-Arab spring teaching curriculums (the conflict of internal and external ideologies)
Abstract 43: Judith McCulloch
The education of children from military service families: agency and identity
Abstract 7: Ruth Willis
Exploring values through Holocaust education: reflections on a teaching and learning experience with Primary School children
|Abstract 19: Andrew Okoye
Achieving sustainable development in the West African region through transnational education
Abstract 29: Farid Md. Shaikh
The Educational Mission of the Congregation of Holy Cross in Bangladesh, 1947-2017
Abstract 61: Vicente Reyes
What is most important in education reform? A Case Study of the Singapore and Philippine partnership
|Abstract 16: Thomas Breeze
A Connected Curriculum: using collaboration and peer teaching to support an integrated response to curriculum change in Wales
Abstract 1: Sarah Stewart
‘Globalisation, Moral Purpose and Emancipation – an agenda for school improvement and system reform’
Abstract 38: Daniela Bacova
Do trainee teachers’ view the use of video as an opportunity or a threat?
|Abstract 10: Thomas Altfelix
Rejuvenating the Idea of a General Theory of Education
Abstract 49: Dave Trotman
(Re)Conceptualising Education Studies: Curriculum concepts and continuities
Abstract 13: Ruth Mieschbuehler
The appeal of relativism: antidotes from Socrates to Siegel
|Room: D 1-036
Teaching and Learning
|Abstract 57: Julia Everitt
External agents, providers and specialists: an exploration of the other individuals invited to be involved in schools and classrooms
Abstract 6: Alan Howe
The seductive power of neuromyths – an inter-disciplinary investigation into pre-service teachers’ understanding of the science of learning
Abstract 44: Jade Murden
Capturing the voices of young people who have been permanently excluded from school: reflections and aspirations
|Abstract 21: Harbir Kaur Bal
Critical reflection practices of educators implementing one-to-one digital device schemes
Abstract 52: Caroline Lewis
Studying in my pyjamas: A case study of online learning and undergraduate experience
|Abstract 23: Tristan Middleton
Developing assessment feedback literacy: The role of reciprocal relationships and dialogic interactions
Abstract 4: Ali Mahmoud
Validating a Plagiarism Scale: A Middle Eastern Context
|Symposium 39: David Menendez Alvarez Hevia
Being there- a collaborative approach into attendance and engagement in Higher Education
|Symposium 31: Thomas Feldges
The reach, the scope and the possibility for student-engagement
|Symposium 33: Lynwen Roberts
Through a Looking Glass of Participation with Young People
Friday 29th June
|Abstract 34: Sean Naughton
Educational Agility – A Conceptual-Developmental
Abstract 27: Asad K. Ghalib
Passive consumers or productive participants? Engaging students as partners in a collaborative learning model
Abstract 25: Sarah Telfer
‘Make ‘em laugh!’-The use of anecdotal stories and laughter in the Classroom – a teaching perspective.
|Abstract 60: Trevor Cotterill
Dual and Multiple Exceptionality: making education provision for SEN and gifted learners
Abstract 20: Alex Kosogorin
British Values – they seek them here, they seek them there
|Room: D 1-036
|Abstract 47: Thuyshari Welikala
Confronting Constructed Identities: Migrant Academics and their Identification Process within the UK Higher Education.
Abstract 46: Md. Monjur-e-Khoda Tarafdar
An Inquiry about Perception of Autonomous Academe and Accountable Leadership: A Case from Bangladesh
Abstract 50: Ciaran O’Sullivan
Stories of ‘Becoming Student’ – Lessons for Lecturers; Lessons for Research
|Abstract 26: Aimie Brennan
Navigating Educator-Researcher Collaboration; Understanding and Building Partnerships for Quality Educational Research
Abstract 54: Joe Gazdula and Fozia Uddin
Managing Alternative Higher Education Providers: Towards a conceptual model of management for collaborative HE provision?
Abstract 15: Dr David Lundie
Multi-Professional Education Research – A post-historical perspective
|Room: Deane Main Lecture Theatre||Workshop: Writing for Publication
Professor Gary Beauchamp
|Abstract 45: Julian Symes
The Impact of the Caring Sports Coach to Affect Young People’s Behaviour: A Study in a Disadvantaged Community
Abstract 48: Dom Thompson
Developing professional capital: From Pedagogic Solitude to the Teachers Takeaway
Abstract 5: Christian Atabong Nchindia
The Impact of Bilingualism and Culture on Students’ Academic Achievements: The case of Cameroonian students in UK Universities
|Abstract 22: Beccie Bridgewater
Developing a subjective well-being measure for early years
Abstract 40: Clare Higgins
A Dynamic Model for Understanding Children’s Drawings
Abstract 56: Gemma Cherry
Educational Attainment across Urban and Rural Locations in the UK: A Systematic Review
|Room: D 1-036
|Abstract 37: Laila Khawaja
Transition from University to work: Lived experiences and perceptions of South Asian women in higher education in England
Abstract 32: Nick Sorensen
The value of ‘the university’ within a school-led system of teacher education in England.
Abstract 63: Sarah Evans
Resistance in Academic Becomings: a diffractive analysis of resistance in student language encounters in UK masters level learning
|Abstract 5: Christian Atabong Nchindia
The Impact of Bilingualism and Culture on Students’ Academic Achievements: The case of Cameroonian students in UK Universities
Many countries are considering how their education systems can be a vehicle for developing more just, fair and equal societies. Across the globe, we are asking what role schools have to play in developing equity for the citizens of its countries. Socio-economic background remains to be a key determiner of children’s educational outcomes and as Europe seeks to grapple with issues of increasing ethical complexities, many countries are seeking ways to develop equity as an influential driver in educational reform. This research paper will set out an international collaborative research project which aims to develop a shared understanding of the principles and values of equity across several European countries. A key aim of the project is to determine a means by which equity in schools can be assessed and the information used as part of a school’s improvement journey. The presentation will share the initial findings of the first year of the research.
El hadj Moussa Benmoussa
This paper seeks to highlight the pertinence of the political representation in the Arab region teaching curriculums. I explore how these images are demonstrated in academia synthesise with one another to propose a new curriculum that, at its grass- root level, shows that each curriculum serves one ideology in the region. By drawing upon two strands of research into the political representation, the study attempts to increase awareness towards the surrounding events and how they are implanted in the curriculum. Secondary to this is questioning the teaching curriculums and how they are designed in the light of post-Arab spring with democracy and diversity in the Arab world. For a profuse understanding, I investigated how lecturers ought to develop curriculums that principally respond to the political representation and also, how lecturers can implement the current ideologies in the region within the curriculum. To address such issues, I designed surveys which provide the project more insights how the political images are depicted throughout the curriculum. This is an exploratory research, utilising qualitative methods by constructing open-ended question surveys and semi-structured interviews. In turn, this will hopefully contribute to the curriculum of Universities in the region of the Arab world. The conclusion was indeed negative; now, the curriculum in the Arab world are showing clearly that political representations are dominating with slight conflict of ideologies.
Ali Mahmoud, Victoria Blinkhorn and Cathal OSiochru
This study aims to validate a scale measuring university students’ attitude towards plagiarism in a Middle Eastern Arabic speaking context. We used Koul’s (2007) plagiarism survey to collect data from both public and private university students between 2015-2016. Using confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis and reliability tests, our 517-response sample revealed that plagiarism is a three rather than six-factor variate comprising: Use of social acquaintances to avoid academic failure, reliance on professional/academic sources, and personal circumstances. Further, our findings revealed that students tend to be indifferent regarding personal circumstances (t = 1.663, p > .05). However, our participants considered plagiarism by using social acquaintances to avoid academic failure as unethical (t = 18.664, p < .0001), whereas, they would regard plagiarism by relying on professional/academic sources as an ethical practice (t = -3.960, p < .0001).
Christian Atabong Nchindia
This study responds to the historic and current academic debates on the effects of bilingualism and cultural on student’s academic achievements. It is based on the hypothesis that bilingualism is advantageous to students beyond the functional ability to communicate with others or with their family and that culture does matters. The claim that the structure of a language inﬂuences how its speakers view the world is today most usually associated with the linguist Sapir and his student Whorf – otherwise referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Edward Sapir, in his studies with Benjamin Lee Whorf, recognized the close relationship between language and culture, concluding that it was not possible to understand or appreciate one without knowledge of the other (Elmes 2013, p. 12). This study employs a critical ethnographic approach to investigate the experiences of Cameroonian bilingual students studying in Greater Manchester Universities. Ethnography is about telling a credible, rigorous, and authentic story that gives voice to people in their own local contexts, typically relying on verbatim quotations and a ‘thick’ description of events (Fetterman, 2010, p. 1). This research investigates how these bilingual students negotiated identity in the classroom, related to power, and strived to excel in a monolingual dominated classroom context. A central argument is that real change in the education of linguistically and culturally diverse students require a fundamental shift from coercive to collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000, p. 17). The literature was focused on the impact of bilingualism and culture on the academic achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse students, mostly, (but not exclusively) in higher education. Different theoretical models converged into a holistic and interactional model in which cognitive, linguistic and sociocultural factors interacted in the mapping process (Gonzalez, 1999, p. 46) of bilingual students’ academic achievement. Vygotsky’s Scaffolding is proposed as one of the best instructional methods for supporting linguistically and culturally diverse students maximize their academic potentials. Oliveira and Athanases (2017) have produced an important framework to reenvision instructional scaffolding for linguistically and culturally diverse students which were also adopted in this study. Advocates of culturally inclusive pedagogy have argued employing a more diverse range of teaching approaches is likely to be enriching to students and teachers alike. On the other hand, linguistically and culturally diverse students may be able and willing to adapt provided the tacit aspects of the new teaching and learning environment are made sufficiently explicit (Bell and Kipar, 2016, p. 96). Moreover, instructional planning must also focus on social and cultural processes and contexts of teaching and learning and the issues related to equitable instruction for a diverse student population (Wiley, 2005, p. 195).
Alan Howe, Chloe Shu-Hua Yeh and Kenra McMahon
The paper will provide an account of cross-disciplinary collaboration between researchers in the fields of education and psychology. Over the past decade, as neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about learning, there have been increasing efforts to bridge the gap between research and pedagogical practices (e.g. Goswami, 2004; Howard-Jones, 2014; Sigman, Peña, Goldin, & Ribeiro (2014). It is also known that teachers’ attitude to learners and learning is a significant influence on students’ classroom performance (Rosenthal and Jacobsen, 1968; Rubie-Davies et al, 2006). The paper focusses on an aspect of a Wellcome Trust funded project ‘Enhancing the Learning Sciences within Primary Initial Teacher Education’ which aims to support teachers to become informed critical consumers of learning science research. It has been reported elsewhere (Weisberg, Keil, Goodstein, Rawson, and Gray, 2008) that claims that seem to be supported by neuroscientific research have a certain ‘seductive allure’ even if the research is questionable. Building on similar surveys undertaken by teachers (Dekker, Lee, Howard-Jones, & Jolles, 2012), an initial survey of trainee teachers (n=298) just embarking on PGCE primary courses was conducted to examine the extent to which they could identify correct and incorrect statements regarding general knowledge of the brain and ‘neuromyths’. Initial qualitative and quantitative analyses are presented which shows some trainees believed statements suggesting that learners’ neurological development is fixed and this cannot be remediated by education, whereas others were uncertain whether ideas such as ‘preferred learning styles’ and ‘left/right brain differences’ explained learner differences. We explore the implications for these findings in relation to the problematic notion of ‘ability’ in primary schooling (Francis et al, 2017). We argue that the popularity of these particular neuromyths indicate some intending teachers are likely to believe children’s potential for learning is fixed and use misconceptions regarding the learning sciences as ‘evidence’ to support their beliefs. We conclude with information regarding potential remedial action to address the issue.
This paper considers how the values of meaning, identity and remembering might be developed through learning about the Holocaust. As well as describing personal experiences of a visit to the world heritage sites of the Auschwitz and Birkenau concentration camps, a series of lessons about the Holocaust undertaken with Primary School children are outlined. Drawing on observations and some responses of children, it is proposed that further to the History Curriculum, aspects of both Spirituality and British Values education are also fulfilled through this subject. Thus, the themes of meaning, identity and remembering are each considered in relation to each subject area.
Additionally, the paper explores how Holocaust education might inspire a critical pedagogy. It is noted that this is a sensitive topic. Therefore, critical questions regarding the role of representation, morality and theology are not ignored, and it is suggested that each might contribute to the development of values in order to inspire hope and change.
In recent years, the Dutch philosopher of education Gert Biesta has juxtaposed two academic traditions in the study and teaching of educational theory – an Anglophone and a Germanophone discourse. In the former, educational theory is seen through the lens of disciplines deemed relevant to education and hence treated as an ‘applied field of study’. In the latter, however, the study of education is afforded the status of an ‘academic discipline in its own right’. This difference implies far-reaching consequences: In the case of Anglophone Education Studies, the concern for educational theory feeds only on the methods and concepts of ‘parent disciplines’ (R.S. Peters) functioning as a contrast medium to render education visible as an object of study. In the case of Pädagogik, the study of education involves methods and concepts specifically generated within contexts of educational theorizing so that educational phenomena may be considered in an ‘educational way’. Biesta argues that this second approach defines education as a basic concept, thus transforming it into the subject of study, not its object. Placed at the centre of its own academic discourse, education (das Pädagogische) can reveal its theoretical potential by initiating the academic study of a more fundamental perspective on anthropological processes of human development (Menschwerdung).
In this paper, I will proceed from Biesta’s bi-paradigmatic assertion with the following objectives in mind:
First, I will argue that Biesta’s comparative analysis of education as either object of study (anglophone case) or subject of study (Germanophone case) is over-simplified and no longer holds true. To demonstrate this point, I will transpose Biesta’s paradigms onto the two discourses pertinent to his assertion, ,Education Studies’ and ,(Allgemeine) Pädagogik’, and show their relationship to have become, in fact, chiasmic not divergent. I will propose that the progressive loss of a General Theory of Education in German discourse appears reversed in the current Anglophone endeavour to place education at the ‘centre of analysis and purpose within the social sciences’ (Stuart Ranson).
Second, I will trace key markers in this cross-over from education’s disciplinary status to its diversifying disintegration (the demise of Allgemeine Pädagogik) and from its extra-disciplinary position as object of study to its new disciplinary status (the emergence of ,New’ Education Studies).
Finally, I will stress the importance of conceptualising education as a discipline-defining concept qua subject of study and consequently the need for both discourses to enter into closer dialogue on this issue.
Bullying is defined in a variety of ways in different contexts, and each individual school in England is required to develop its own definition, parameters and policy. This paper explores a variety of definitions from government and third sector organisations in the UK, making comparison with those from other contexts, specifically the USA and Australia. In particular it considers whether bullying is repeated behaviour or experience, and how labels such as target, victim and perpetrator have the potential to damage individual identities. It highlights common themes and differences across definitions and interpretations, comparing them with those of staff (n = 131) drawn from sixteen schools in one large local authority area in England, detailing their conceptions and experiences of bullying. These data were gathered through anonymous online questionnaires undertaken with staff in a variety of roles. The schools were self-selecting, having indicated a willingness to engage in a project to develop anti-bullying strategies and resources to promote children’s well-being, advocacy and self-esteem, led by GR8 AS UR (a not-for-profit organisation) and funded by a National Lottery Reaching Communities grant. The questionnaire elicited initial baseline data, including staff members’ experiences of bullying in schools and their personal definitions. The staff identify whether, where and how bullying is encountered in their settings, how they address such issues, and whether there are particular stimuli on which they focus. The conclusions indicate that a redeveloped, clear and understandable definition of bullying is needed that is accessible to all stakeholders in schools, including children. This needs to be inclusive in its focus, unambiguous and applicable across a broad range of settings, leaving aside the historical baggage associated with the subject.
In several low and middle income countries, an unacceptably large number of children are not learning. According to the recent data estimates by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, about 88% of children in Sub-Saharan Africa and 81% children in Central Asia are not learning the basic minimum. The context in Pakistan is no different where recent evidence from data like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) shows that even after five years of schooling, more than half the children in grade 5 in schools in Pakistan cannot read a sentence in English fluently. The state legislations and policy reforms has provided impetus, however, the focus on quality remains compromised. Thus it is not surprising that the last couple of years have seen the government mobilizing partnerships and coalitions as a panacea for bridging governance and resource gaps in addressing educational needs of children and adults for 21st century and beyond.
This paper focuses on one such innovative programme (Learning for Access) supported by Dubai Cares and implemented by a local NGO in Pakistan that employs effective partnership approach between government, schools and communities, to enable out of school children gain basic literacy and numeracy skills in a short period of time. Following Pratham India’s “Teaching at the Right Level” (TaRL) approach which puts out of school children (OOSC) in a learning camp of 45-60 days, 20,800 OOSC were provided intensive bursts of remedial education across 530 schools in 3 provinces of Pakistan. This paper employs a quantitative research design that entails probit analysis and household fixed-effect estimates to explore the impact of Learning for Access Program on learning levels of children across targeted four rural districts in Pakistan. The study found out that recipients of the program (treatment school children) outperformed control group children across all three competencies (English, Urdu and Maths). Analysis of probit estimates suggested that belonging to a school that received the intervention from ITA is positively associated with pupil learning. The paper aims to provide useful data to understand the factors on how TaRl pedagogy works for promoting quality learning for the marginalized OOSC-as an intervention that is alliance-embedded linked to both demand and supply side realities helping us set ground for policy and action frameworks in this area.
‘Groupthink’ is rife in universities around the world according to a 2017 report by the right-wing Adam Smith Institute with the majority of academics promoting left-wing thinking. If we look less politically and more philosophically at academia we can see that it is dominated by a more dangerous form of groupthink: relativism. Relativism is constituted by various expressions of the belief that there is no ‘objective truth’, rather there are ‘many truths’. Philosophers have provided refutations of relativism for over 2000 years but the struggle against relativism never ends as it has a constant appeal. In the contemporary form of ‘cultural relativism’ relativism is stronger than ever because it seems to empower people.
Roger Scruton famously said that ‘(moral) relativism is the first refuge of a scoundrel’ and university bureaucracies and academics spontaneously adopt relativism as a way of avoiding judgement. For decades academics have argued for a variety of ‘truths’. Now people are arguing for ‘alternative facts’ or ‘truths’. Relativism is both morally and epistemologically destructive.
This session will present and examine the refutations of relativism from Socrates to more recent philosophers, including Harvey Siegel, Richard Bailey and Paul Boghossian. It will show how ‘cultural relativism’ leaves the powerless and disadvantaged even weaker by taking away their participation in the search for the absolute truth. Most importantly, the session will introduce the new concept of ‘institutional relativism’ to reveal how the adoption of relativistic thought in universities diminishes students and denies them a higher education.
The theme of multi-professional practice has become a prominent component of education studies programmes in recent years, in recognition of the increasing diversity of roles engaging in education and schooling, besides classroom teachers. Despite this thematic focus, there has been little empirical research with the complex meso-level of mediators who now occupy the space between policy and practice.
This paper draws on the findings from a comparative case-study of multi-professional work on the implementation of the Prevent agenda in schools, involving elite interviews with 14 mediators from Local and National government, inspectorate, teacher education, policing and security in two cities in England. It reports an increasingly complex picture of privatisation in spaces vacated by local government cuts and the dissolution of educational NGOs. In this space, different professional vocabularies interact in a ‘tower of babel’, floating free of the organisational structures in which they were coined and given concrete meaning.
This paper draws on the post-historical thesis of Alexandre Kojeve (1969) who argued that the phenomenological circle of history as a struggle for recognition had been completed, and that contemporary society is living beyond the end of history. Kojeve’s theory is applied to the historical institutionalist methodology which was used to gather data on Prevent, in order to evaluate the shortcomings of research in multi-professional settings. The author presents a revised methodological framework, ‘post-historical institutionalism’, which recognises logic-less liminal spaces in the growing distance between institutional logics, as a theoretical device to investigate multi-professional practice as it affects the contemporary educational sector.
Thomas Breeze, Emma Thayer and Dr Judith Kneen
This paper aims to share the findings of four secondary PGCE course leaders who are in the process of developing constructive teaching links between what are traditionally discrete subject areas. This is the third year of a developing initiative within the PGCE programme of a Welsh university, which reflects wider educational developments within Wales. The presentation will initially provide background context, including a picture of current school curriculum developments in Wales, following the curriculum review by Professor Graham Donaldson in his Successful Futures report (Donaldson, 2015). Donaldson warns against a curriculum that is ‘unwieldy, overcrowded and atomistic’ and inhibits opportunities to learn ‘more holistically’ and across subject boundaries (Donaldson 2015 p.35). Instead, the new curriculum should ‘promote coherence and encourage children and young people to make connections across different aspects of their learning’ (ibid.) by encouraging subjects to work through six areas of learning. The presentation will go to describe ongoing collaborative work and research by ITE colleagues in four secondary subject areas as they respond to the changes in the curriculum. It will outline cross-curricular collaborations in two distinct projects, Music and Drama and Drama and English. Each project has a different focus in terms of content, but there is a common pedagogic thread in that each project utilises peer teaching as a method for facilitating a cross-curricular approach. Peer teaching and learning has been in existence since ancient times, but might be considered is ‘an underutilised, yet highly valuable resource for higher education’ (Krych et al. 2005, p.296). It is ‘a two-way, reciprocal learning activity’ which should be ‘mutually beneficial and involve the sharing of knowledge, ideas and experience between the participants’ (Boud 2001 p.3). Findings from data collected from students involved in the project, considering the efficacy of this approach, will be considered, including how these might relate to ITE more widely. Finally, the presentation will contemplate future developments. This project focuses on practice in Wales explicitly, but the approach of collaborative practice is relevant more broadly, and it may be particularly relevant to ITE providers with smaller cohorts where education and training are perhaps more likely to involve training/development in cross-curricular groupings.
Pamela de Bortoli
Cinema that educates. Education that films. The cinema taken to the school or the school that brings the cinema? The intent of the research is not to characterise a single form of learning or a specific type of school. We start from the idea that cinema and school do not separate, apart from there being an exchange of knowledge between them. Dialogue between school and cinema where the cinema is not only the dark room and school is not just a teacher as the only source of knowledge. Thus, we present the results of a workshop applied in Brazilian schools, showing how cinema can be a potential for education.
Andrew Okoye and Fredrick Agboma
Achieving sustainable development in the West African region through TNE.
Sustainable development involves improvements in a people’s living conditions, creating equity and justice, and allowing generations to come to be able to realise their aspirations and meet their needs (Koehn and Obamba, 2014). As reflected in the 4th item of the UN sustainable development goals initiative, education is seen as an essential tool. While there has been considerable research into the need and avenues for HEIs to contribute to sustainable development objectives, most of these do not seem to consider the considerable impact of HE internationalization especially in the area of Transnational Education (TNE). This paper seeks to examine the role of TNE in achieving sustainable development in the West African region. It pays specific attention to the higher education deficiency and the development of TNE in the region and make suggestions on how to improve the current to ensure that this increasingly prominent form of HEI internationalization delivers the requisite skills and knowledge necessary for sustainable development in the region.
The research adopts a qualitative approach and interview data was collected from a range of key regional TNE stakeholders. Giving the exploratory nature of this research, the qualitative approach rather than the quantitative approach is preferable. A total of 19 interviews were conducted – from UK universities, the British Council UK, the British Council Nigeria, the Nigerian Ministry of Education and some students from the region.
Results from the data shows that unlike other regions, the West African states lack a strong TNE presence. There are demand and supply element to this situation. In terms of the demand factors, some students within the region prefer to travel outside their country of origin for higher education and related career prospects. In terms of supply factors, HEIs often cite problems related to lack of or poorly defined policy on TNE as well as related supports systems. This situation is rather unfortunate giving the contributions of TNE to the development of some other regions of the world especially the South East Asia and the Middle East regions. In part these regions have benefited from a clear policy on TNE and have developed relevant support systems as a result. Their growth has been attributed to various stakeholders having shared understanding and commitment. The same template can be adopted by the West African states for the future prosperity of the region.
Alex Kosogorin and Linda Barker
This small-scale qualitative research interviewed 15 teachers from primary schools in both London and the East Midlands to explore their perspectives on the duty to promote British Values within schools. A range of themes emerged from these interviews including the suggestion that some teachers agree with Elton-Chalcraft et al. (2017) and Lander’s (2016) argument that education is being used as a political instrument to try and prevent extremism. Teacher 6 was concerned that ‘the Prevent Strategy is a method of passing responsibility for preventing terrorism onto teachers’. Teacher 12 further suggests that the linking of British Values to the Prevent Strategy could ‘possibly serve to further alienate those at greatest risk’. Teacher 11 claimed that ‘using the term ‘British’ could cause confusion as to what is ‘British’ and spur on certain groups that are not very accepting’.
Teacher 8 regards the arbitrary and inadequate list of values chosen by government as promoting a singular binary and divisive concept of Britishness in terms of ‘essentialising and othering people’. Struthers suggests that ‘couching British values in the broader framework of human rights would … be likely to contribute to societal cohesion and harmony to a far greater extent than the vague and potentially discriminatory FBV guidance’ (2017, p. 89). Many respondents in this research saw the so-called fundamental British values of democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and mutual respect and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs to be ‘core values, but not necessarily British’ (Teacher 9) and ‘more human values’ (Teacher 14). Overall, this research concludes that to more effectively promote British Values in schools Britishness should be ‘seen as a pluralistic diverse concept made up of many identities and values’ (Teacher 8).
Harbir Kaur Bal
Although there have been calls for critical approaches to studying education technology and practice, few studies have addressed the nature of teachers’ and leaders’ critical reflection in relation to technology practices. This study aimed to understand the normative nature of educators critical reflection related to the implementation of one-to-one digital device schemes in secondary schools. One-to-one digital device socio-technical regimes extend ubiquitous, continuously networked and digitally socialised communication practices into the school and thus re-articulate and compound political and cultural pedagogical conditioning of teachers, leaders and students.
The methodology was based on a multiple comparative case study of four secondary UK schools and one USA school and informed by tenets of constructivist Grounded Theory. This approach included iterative and simultaneous data collection, literature review, and analysis. Current literature was drawn on for sensitising concepts. Qualitative data collection methods were used, including semi-structured interviews with teachers and leaders. Lessons were observed across core and non-core subjects in each year group.
According to theories of reflective practice, critical reflection involves interrogating context, assumptions and taken-for-granted aspects of the situation in order to draw conclusions and inform future actions. Practices informed by the critical theory tradition aim to understand how experience and practice are shaped by power relations, ideological manipulation and hegemony rather than focusing on technical and procedural elements of practice Drawing on these theories, I will discuss the emergent typology of critical reflection and examine the ways in which educators critically reflect on present situations and practices. Most educators regularly reflected on the pedagogical utility of one-to-one practices and acknowledged the pedagogical and curriculum implications of wider political and social implications of ubiquitous computing and increased use of social media. These concerns reflected mainstream education and technology industry discourse emphasising opportunity, issues and risks regarding pedagogy, mental health and critical information and media literacies. These findings offer a theoretical contribution to other models that conceive of technology as a knowledge system pertaining to classroom instructional practice and considers educators’ role as critical public intellectuals.
Beccie Bridgewater, Gareth Williams, Ildiko Krumpek and Janice Puati
This quantitative study aims to offer younger children a voice when considering their own emotional well-being. It is suggested that emotional well-being is a key indicator of academic success for children and young people within formal education (Gutman et al 2012). Despite research demonstrating this, the focus within today’s educational policy is on academic outputs (National Union of Teachers 2015). A significant lack of attention is given to subjective well-being of young children across previous literature with a focus upon children of an older age range within Key Stage 2 and 3. Research with younger participants has been largely overlooked. The current research project consisted of four small-scale studies with children who were six to seven years old within a primary school. Two measures of well-being were constructed based on a qualitative activity and card-sorting; one measure for experiences children have around well-being and another for opportunities they have available to them to enable positive well-being. These measures were then piloted with a cohort of Key Stage 1 children. While the psychometric properties of the experiences scale indicated it was not reliable, the opportunities scale showed good internal reliability. Moreover, children generally felt positive about their well-being. Measures of observed well-being were also collected and these showed weak associations with the subjective well-being measures. The discussion explores the findings from the two scales in relation to the literature around children’s well-being and the roles of observed and subjective measures in building a holistic picture of a young child’s well-being.
Tristan Middleton, Adeela ahmed Shafi, Sian Templeton and Richard Millican
This research is situated within the notion of ‘feedback literacy’ (Carless, 2016) and academic buoyancy (Martin and Marsh, 2009). It examines ways in which students respond to and use feedback in order to ascertain the potential for tutors to maximise its effectiveness. It builds on the first phase of this research which was designed to improve assessment feedback (Ahmed Shafi et al., 2017). Findings demonstrated that, alongside changes in practice derived from the first phase, the dynamic interaction of the social and personal contexts were key factors in feedback processes and academic buoyancy. Phase 1 highlighted the impact feedback has on students’ emotional state and identified five indicators of academic buoyancy (the Big 5). The findings showed that assessment feedback can support the development of these indicators and thus develop academic buoyancy. Based on these findings, changes to practice were implemented.
This current paper explores the impact of these changes, which included: focused tutor input on the 5 indicators, revising the assessment feedback format and student devised action points for discussion within personal tutor meetings. To understand the impact of these changes with regards to feedback literacy, qualitative data were collected from 4 focus groups each comprising between 4-6 students and 8 individual student interviews across Levels 4, 5 and 6 of a UK undergraduate BA Education degree course. Findings indicated that changes to practice supported academic buoyancy and that additional input to develop the indicators would be beneficial. Additional emergent themes included the importance of contextualised dialogue (Ajjawi & Boud, 2017) and the significance of relationships with tutors in facilitating a more buoyant response to feedback.
The research has led to a proposed model that conceptualises feedback practice and bases it on a revised set of Big 5 indicators of academic buoyancy and embeds it in a course ethos that recognises the importance of relationships between tutors and students and acknowledges the role of dialogue in providing both emotional and academic support. The model takes account of the individual attributes of students stressing the formative, personal and development potential of feedback and with a systems perspective. The relevance of these findings link closely to the idea of ‘value for money’ in Higher Education but importantly to how tutors can support students in their academic journey.
Experiential enterprise and entrepreneurship learning in higher education can provide students with key transferrable skills in readiness for a rapidly changing socio-economic landscape and nurture graduates with the mind-set and competencies for intrapreneurship and business ownership. While accepting that an experiential approach in enterprise and entrepreneurship education is worthwhile, this paper seeks to reflect on some key challenges. It focuses on two different but interrelated objectives around curriculum design and delivery. Firstly, there is a requirement for programme designs to incorporate the right mix of theory and practice. In this case, theoretical elements require ‘learning about’ enterprise and entrepreneurship that need to be balanced with the practical elements of ‘learning for’ enterprise and entrepreneurship. Secondly, the need to implement appropriate learning and teaching strategies that reflect the classroom (learning about) and the field (learning for) based elements of students’ learning is essential but not straightforward.
To assess these inherent challenges, qualitative data in the form of focus groups, interviews, observations and personal reflections was collected over a three-year period from three separate cohorts of business and management undergraduate students and lecturers on an entrepreneurship module at the University of Bolton. The module is designed to couple academic rigour with practical applications and encourages students to test the waters of business, and their ideas for development, in a safe environment. Student groups form companies, and experience first-hand the entire life cycle of business ownership: from set up, funding, and planning, to goods or service development, marketing, selling, and winding down.
The results indicate a couple of key challenges. First, the new venture creation and management process has the potential to work against the overriding educational objective of fostering entrepreneurship as early exposure of inexperienced students to the varied indeterminable factors surrounding the realities of entrepreneurship can be counterproductive and adversely affect engagement and learning. Second, it can be difficult to create and sustain an environment that fosters experiential learning in terms of balancing the challenges faced by students and the level of support on offer to cope with these challenges. While the challenge element in experiential learning in enterprise and entrepreneurship education is easily achieved, the support element can often fall short of what students require.
Sarah Telfer and Neil Dougan
There is an Indian proverb which states: ‘Tell me a fact and I’ll learn. Tell me a truth and I’ll believe. But tell me a story and it will live in my heart forever.’ Teachers can bring stories and laughter to the classroom from their own life experiences and this can be a vital communication tool to engage and motivate learners.
Laughter is a universal language that is easily recognised around the world and therefore has a global reach as a teaching tool. In teaching, shared laughter creates social bonds and promotes memorable content which can open students’ minds to new ideas expressed from creative angles.
This paper examines the use of personal anecdotes and humour as a teaching and learning tool and explores the possible impact of such techniques on our students in terms of motivation, and learning gain. It discusses how exposure to personal stories and use of humour can be customised to create greater engagement in the lecture theatre and classroom.
Aimie Brennan and Patrick Burke
The value of educational research has been the source of increasing attention internationally. There has been much debate about how research can and should inform schools (Hargreaves, 1999; Slavin, 2008), yet divergent opinions on the quality, reliability and international relevance of this research can be united by one common issue: the complexity of the researcher-gatekeeper collaboration. Difficulties in conducting studies involving school children have been well-documented (Harrell, et al., 2000; Kennedy-Macfoy, 2013). Research on gatekeeping has tended to be narrow in focus (views of researchers, Heath et al., 2007; descriptive of issues in one research project, Wanat, 2008; Troman, 1996). The current paper explores the relationship between school gatekeepers who find themselves in a position of responsibility, and educational researchers who are responding to the need for evidence-based output. This paper will focus on the perceptions and experiences of gatekeepers in Irish schools with a view to discussing educator-researcher collaboration more generally, and making a case for centralizing collaboration in pursuit of evidence-based educational research.
This qualitative study adopted an exploratory stance (Creswell and Millar, 2000). An invitation to partake in the study was issued to all 128 English-medium primary schools in the county in which our institution is situated. Due to a low response rate, we subsequently employed snowball sampling. This typically involved an educational professional known to the researchers (e.g. a teacher) recommending other potential participants. We will present data gathered from case-study schools which has been analysed thematically. Participants discussed a variety of factors that influence their decisions to grant access to researchers in their schools. While all participants mentioned child protection and allied ethical issues (e.g. confidentiality, anonymity), they expounded on other issues which emphasize the importance of personal relationships and mutual understanding that must take place before collaboration can begin. Specifically, we will present participant’s views on: the importance and presentation of a proposed research topic to educators; the influence of a researcher’s previous relationships and/or professional affiliation; the timing and method of initial contact, and interestingly, the maintenance of the educator-researcher relationship post data-collection. The aim of our paper is to illuminate the needs of educators and researchers in the current educational climate, and ultimately to aid educator-researcher collaboration, an essential tool for conducting quality educational research.
Asad K. Ghalib
This paper explores a novel and innovative approach to learning and teaching Strategic Management, that enhances the ‘staff-student partnership’ dimension of learning and teaching within the context of higher education. Instead of being passive consumers, students are turned to active participants in this model of teaching and learning.
It uses postgraduate student-authored cases derived from their own professional experience, for discussion in the classroom. In order to assess the method’s effectiveness and student response, empirical data is captured and analysed over four academic years, by administering a semi-structured questionnaire. The study finds that given the rich diversity of the cohort and variety of the cases submitted and discussed, the method led to a deeper understanding of subject-related topics which students found to be very useful.
Farid Md Shaikh
The Congregation of Holy Cross has been working on evangelization and education in Bangladesh for more than 160 years. However, over the years particularly from 1947 to 2017, there have been many changes – internal and external – to Holy Cross itself and the socio-political, and educational context of Bangladesh. Thus, this study addresses how the educational mission of Holy Cross has responded to the changes, and how those changes have shaped their educational mission in Bangladesh. The study took place in a historical context by following the historical case (multiple cases) study method. This study was based primarily on examination of written documents and field work involving oral history interviews. The study found that Holy Cross education had gone through significant changes because of political and educational shifts in Bangladesh. As their educational missions were formulated, to some extent, in dialogue with governments, the study showed that with regards to educational policies and strategies Holy Cross had different approaches from the government practices. The study illustrates that they are quite successful in missions of – “raising up native clergies”- and establishing a local church. The thesis also argues that they had distinctive educational aims as part of an elite education in both English and Bengali medium, and through primary and secondary education in the villages. While the former was primarily motivated by the idea of -“diffusion of Christian ideals”- and the latter aimed at empowering the Catholics.
Thomas Feldges, Sonia Pieczenko and Steve Johnstone
This symposium aims to elaborate on three aspects of student-engagement/student-as-partners agendas. Within a globalised, neo-liberal economy education itself has become subject to market-forces, leaving students as being perceived and perceiving themselves as ‘customers’. By developing three perspectives we aim to inform our audience about difficulties, limitations and the possibilities of student-engagement agendas with ‘customer-students’. We hope to incite a debate that will provide valuable feedback for the audience as much as for the presenters.
1. Presentation: Student engagement and students-as-partners agendas in the cold light of the neo-liberal market, Dr Tom Feldges, Lecturer at University Centre North Lindsey
The first presentation sets the theme and focuses upon systemic-structural limits to student-engagement and students-as-partner agendas as a result of the neo-liberal marketization of UK HE. With recourse to a small-scale study it is argued that top-down approaches will not be able to secure sufficient student-engagement.
2. Presentation: Lecturers in ‘bad faith’ cannot be valuable partners for students Sonia Pieczenko, Lecturer at University Centre Grimsby.
The second presentation develops the issues around increasing managerial control regimes and their impact on the tutor. By drawing on J.P. Sartre’s work the conceptual argument is brought forward arguing that these managerial styles are in danger of leaving the individual tutor in ‘bad faith’, i.e., an inauthentic person. The author claims that the student’s experience is key and that exposure to inauthentic tutors may pose a limit to their willingness to engage in a partnership with academics of this kind.
3. Presentation: The SEE Project for student-engagement. Steven Johnstone, Director of HE Programmes, University Centre North Lindsey College
The third presentation introduces a conceptual model to enhance students’ scholarship, engagement and employability (SEE). This model supports a recursive approach that facilitates the accomplishment of the mundane to enable a subsequent engagement with increasingly complex tasks, while encouraging a continuous, individual reflection upon the student’s own values. The model aims to broaden and to extend the students’ line of sight by developing a wider perspective from the observer-position of the student, and thus keeping the individual student at the very centre of these so initiated transitions.
The presenters are keen to enter into a discussion with the audience to gain feedback, ideas and suggestions regarding this topic from the audience.
Teacher education has experienced widespread disruption in recent years and there is growing international concern about how policy changes are impacting on notions of teacher professionalism, partnership and pupil outcomes (TEG, 2016). Market driven reforms in England have resulted in the systemic fragmentation of provision. The Diversity in Education research programme (DiTE) at Bath Spa University aims to provide insights into contemporary teacher education reform building on the findings of the earlier Modes of Teacher Education (MOTE) study undertaken in the 1990s (Furlong et al. 2000). The initial output from the DiTE programme (Whiting et al., 2018) demonstrated the complexity and the perplexity arising from continual and rapid change.
Empirical work, involving case studies, was undertaken in the 2016-17 academic year to explore the in depth characteristics of a sample of different types of provision. In particular critical attention has been given as to what constitutes a partnership approach to initial teacher education (Sorensen, 2017). The conclusion is that partnership arrangements within a school-led system comprise fluid and negotiated arrangements between schools and HEIs that are determined to protect the interests of both and enable schools to secure an advantageous position within a complex system. This paper draws on semi-structured interviews with school partners and beginner teachers to explore how the contribution that universities make to initial teacher education is valued within a school-led system. A key conclusion is that in spite of government policy partnership with HEIs is still valued and the PGCE award is considered to be important.
Lynwen Roberts, Alison Baggott, Angharad Lewis, Alana Enoch and Nicola Welton
The aim of this symposium is to consider two projects which have used participatory methods with young people focusing on the overarching area of wellbeing. Children’s rights have been enshrined in legislation in Wales since 2011, and this symposium reflects the importance of the rights agenda in education in Wales, with a particular focus on participation.
One project has focused on training a range of professionals and trainee teachers in raising their awareness of children’s rights in Wales. During the symposium, the responses of a group of trainee teachers in a specific task which reflects on the opportunities and challenges involved with enabling children’s rights will be considered. There will also be a reflection on the summative feedback at the end of the training, with a particular focus on the participants’ intentions in applying children’s rights in a learning setting. The other project has focused on working with a group of young people in a secondary school setting, focusing on their well-being and how their school is supporting them. The project has used innovative participatory methods in engaging the young people to enable the researchers to support the school in ensuring a continued focus on the young people’s well-being and thus support their learning development.
This paper argues that educational institutions must be able to deliver academic provision to meet the requirements of both government policy and employers. This task will become more challenging over time – particularly as the rate of change and market demand increases.
Increasing levels of worldwide competition, in part brought about through technological change and innovation, have provided unprecedented challenges for businesses. At the same time, educational providers have faced their own trials in aligning outputs to both governmental and industrial requirements. Whilst arguments exist to signal the reasons behind the educational challenges, it can be argued models put forth to ease their burden have not always managed to overcome the trials faced.
This paper highlights relevant supporting strategic frameworks and proceeds to present a conceptual strategic model arguing for the agile alignment of all elements of the educational process from the point of initiation (Government policy) through to the educated individual in the workplace via the use of the agility concept, and more specifically agile supply chains. It is envisaged this will help to overcome turbulence factors that have historically presented challenges to the sector.
The key framework models underpinning this work are identified as:
- The Agility Road Map (Ismail et al., 2006)
- The framework for agile supply chains (Ismail and Sharifi, 2006)
- The Strategic Agility Framework (Ismail et al., 2011)
- EFQM Excellence Model (EFQM, 2013)
- The extended Ansoff matrix (Sharifi et al., 2006; Sharifi et al., 2013)
This paper concludes by presenting a strategic model of the agility concept for educational provision, making it more market-centric and able to adapt to changing needs at relatively short notice. In so doing, it integrates every element of the educational supply chain, incorporating government requirements, data-driven market knowledge, learners and employers, thus reducing waste and improving efficiency within the system as a whole.
Sean Naughton and Susan Murrin-Bailey
Whilst publications exist identifying the concept of binge learning, little consideration has been paid to its alignment with government policy, modern society and technology – effectively its causes and resultant outcomes. This paper provides a conceptual model to explain the underlying causes and net outputs of binge learning, and identifies the social construct faced through its development over time.
The theoretical perspectives underlying this work emanate from the traditional deep and surface learning concepts as described by Houghton (2004) and Biggs & Tang (2007). Therein the surface approach to learning considers the method in which a student studies only enough to pass an assessment and fulfil the minimum requirements, thereby identifying a lack of time and the prioritisation of non-academic activities. By means of comparison, and as proposed by Beattie et al., (2010), the ‘deep-surface distinction’ reveals the student learning intention, their learning style, the learning approach adopted and learning outcomes they seek.
Through a process of aligning student attendance with assignment marks and data indicating the use of online-learning facilities for a module, an unexpected outcome surfaced that had neither been sought nor considered. To some extent, the data emanating from each of these individual indicators may have been anticipated – superficially, individuals with low attendance rates appeared to achieve lower results. At the same time, usage rates for the online learning materials for the given module were very low until the week of the assignment submission. However, deeper analysis indicated that poor attendance did not universally produce lower grades, and in the cases of low attending but high achieving individuals, their use of the learning materials in the final week was extremely high. The immediate postulation emanating from this was that learners were binge learning – the educational equivalence of binge consumption. Further consideration of social and technological trends, allied with governmental requirements and arguments put forward with regards the dilution of education lead to the development of a conceptual model in this paper. This model helps to explain not only the changes behind this way of learning that appears to have been adopted by some students, but also the factors that allow it to be delivered and the possible outcomes that might arise in the near future should the concept develop more broadly in the education sector.
Zeta Brown, Gavin Rhoades and Matt Smith
The present paper emerged from a Q-method evaluation of the 2016-2017 Explore University programme which organised experiences for people of school age who might find value in studying higher education. The range of activities included campus visits, subject taster days, information, guidance and advice sessions in schools and summer schools. The Q-method study investigated the views of participants in Explore University to identify their shared perspectives on applying to university.
This Q-method involved participants sorting a set of statement cards onto a distribution grid shaped as an inverted pyramid. Participants sorted the cards based on how much they agreed with each statement. Data was collected on the participants’ perspectives then analysed collectively to produce consensus viewpoints which have statistical significance. In total, 46 secondary school students (aged 14-16 years) sorted 36 statements onto an online distribution grid.
The conference paper will present the study’s key findings that included four groups of participants that hold differing perspectives on aspiring to HE. The study found that 26 of the 41 participants who loaded on factors 2 to 4 believed the Explore University programme had positively supported them to consider university as an option for them. The rest of the students held a strong and longstanding perspective that they would attend university. The study also found that none of the participants were heavily influenced by the perspectives of their family and friends. Instead students were influenced more by their perspectives of themselves as learners.
With the rise of multiculturalism in Britain the visibility of ethnic diversity has increased. Over the last two decades, studies concerning ethnic minority women from South Asia (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh) in the United Kingdom reveal that intersection of ethnicity, gender and differences in social class influence the level of adaptation of their distinct roles in personal, academic and career trajectories. Much of the earlier literature found on the lives of South Asian women was merged within their familial and traditional roles and limited attention was paid to their educational and professional prospects. This study focuses on how ethnicity, gender and social class issues interrelate in the lived experiences of South Asian women upon their transition from university to work by considering their previous educational journeys from early childhood. Exploring the lived experiences of young South Asian women would be paramount to understand how these women perceive the interplay between these constructs from early educational experiences to current HE experiences and their expectations of transition to employment. By using Bourdieu’s theory of practice (Field, Capitals and Habitus), the researcher has theoretically and empirically linked how one’s individual experiences and social positions, opportunities and challenges shape the expectation of the objective reality and their ability to pursue these expectations. The aims of this study are set out as exploratory narratives of South Asian women’s perceptions which include the interpretations of the meanings of their lived experiences by the researcher.
This qualitative research employs an ethnographic study design as well as the elements of Phenomenology in order to adapt thematic narrative analysis approach. In examining the experiences and perceptions of South Asian women’s higher education trajectories, this study will explore their narratives as they relate to their evolving lived experiences within a raced, classed and gendered world. Twelve South Asian women in higher education, living in and around Hampshire region in England were interviewed and asked to explore the experiences of their educational journeys. This was achieved by semi-structured and biographical interviews, participants’ observations and field notes. The fact that the researcher has only recently collected data, the analysis is still a work in progress. In the preliminary analysis so far, one of the key themes identified so far is the involvement of family and the impacts of familial roles of South Asian women upon their higher educational and employment journeys. More detailed findings will be ready by the date of the conference. Once completed, it is expected that the comprehensive analysis of the data will yield results specific to the interpretations of the social dimensions of South Asian women’s perceptions and their role identities, will interact to paint the picture of their expectations of transition from university to the work environment.
Daniela Bacova and Sarah Telfer
With technological advances in digitised recording video now has a firm place in the professional development of teachers, but there is limited research on how trainee teachers perceive the use of video during their initial teaching course.
This study explores the following questions:
• How does video support trainee teachers’ preparation for microteaching?
• What do the trainee teachers learn while observing others?
• What is their cognitive and emotional response to watching others and watching themselves?
• To what extent are they motivated to utilise video in their teaching practice?
This presentation will present the findings from an online questionnaire and three focus groups completed by 82 trainees at the University of Bolton who were preparing to teach in the 14+ Education and Training Skills Sector in the UK. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions, out of which seven were Likert-scale and six were open-ended. The quantitative analysis suggests that that watching and analysing the in-house video capturing trainee teachers’ peers delivering a microteach lesson made a statistically significant impact on trainees’ confidence levels and this was due to an increase in participants’ understanding of assessment criteria. The thematic analysis of the open-ended questions identified key themes in the trainees’ cognitive and emotional response to watching others: Expectations (Clarification of the task requirements); Evaluations (What to do and what not to do); Cognitive and Emotional Arousal (Reassurance); and Challenges and Limitations. Moreover, the results indicate that the positive impact of the video was increased especially due to its careful implementation into the curriculum.
The focus groups identified diverse responses of trainee teachers to video record their own microteach and their own lessons in their teaching practice. While the trainees appreciated the positive impact of watching others, some of them seemed to be highly critical of any suggestion to be asked to be videoed and to watch themselves. This seems to suggest that when introducing the use of video technology in the teacher training programme, teacher educators need to carefully plan its impact on trainees’ emotional response on seeing themselves teaching.
David Menendez Alvarez Hevia, Ammaar Ahmed, Asifa Pervaiz Akhter, Nansin Amin, Fleur Burke, Shabana Butt, Thomas Daly, Lewis Leigh, Jo-Anne Levesconte, Janet Lord, Iqra Mahmood, Steven Naylor, Antonia Shevlin and Jordan Wortescroft
There is a growing concern among universities over the levels of student absenteeism at teaching activities. Attendance is an increasingly important issue in the UK, but also internationally, for its impact on student experience, academic performance and engagement. Although attendance is generally studied in relation to achievement (e.g. Arulampalam, Naylor & Smith, 2012), this study takes a more critical approach, illuminating different ways of conceptualising the “problem of attendance” at lectures, seminars and other academic activities and examining the implications and possibilities of strategies for improving attendance. Whilst there is a tendency to represent students as consumers (economic subjects), rather than being reflective or productive (Molesworth, Scullion and Nixon, 2011) throughout this project we take a political standpoint and commit ourselves to uncovering narratives that challenge that form of representation taking a collaborative Action Research approach. It involves Education Studies lectures and students (as co-researchers) conducting research from inside and with others, focusing on improving practices and generating knowledge through reflection, collaboration and transformation (McNiff, 2016). There are three questions underlying the study.
This symposium aims to create a space to think and discuss about the following questions: (1) How is attendance conceptualised by students and lecturers? (2) Do current strategies at pedagogical, organisational and institutional levels have an impact on attendance? (3) How can students’ attendance at teaching sessions and other academic activities be improved?
PRESENTATION 1- Being there: Conceptualising Attendance
Attendance is conceptualised in different ways by different actors. All of them understand that the level of attendance have some implications for academic performance. However, there is evidence that suggests disagreement in the way that they perceive attendance as a “problem”. In this part of the presentation are explored and critically analysed different forms of understanding attendance.
PRESENTATION 2- Analysis of strategies and pedagogies used to improve attendance
In this part of the symposium, we analyse and evaluate current practices associated to the issue of attendance. This discussion includes discussion of traditional and new forms of monitoring attendance, teaching practices and institutional approaches.
PRESENTATION 3- Challenges and possibilities of a collaborative approach: a student perspective
In this section students and lecturers, expose their experience participating in a form of research that involves conducting research from inside and with others, focusing on improving practices and generating knowledge through reflection, collaboration and transformation (McNiff, 2016). Personal experiences from students are used to illustrate the process and challenges associated to the process of “becoming a researcher”.
This paper explores how a model inspired by Rose’s (1996) Method of Visual Analysis can be utilised to deepen the understanding of children’s learner self-identity using drawings produced by children and advise teachers of their learning perception in a foreign language. It reports on the investigation of findings when a class of 6-7 year-old children are invited to reflect on their own learning of Spanish through drawings and subsequent conversations with a primary school teacher-researcher and gives new insights into the way children view their own learning and informs teaching practice by advocating close listening, reading and observation of the production of children’s’ drawings.
The research is a phenomenological inquiry and draws upon the work of Vygotsky (2004) and Cox (2005). The method used a Year 2 class (6-7 year olds) to draw themselves learning Spanish. Each drawing is analysed using the model developed for this research. The model has three foci: Text, Audience, and Producer. Each of the drawings is explored by considering the Text (e.g. was it fantasy or non-fiction?), the Audience (was it for teacher, peer or family?) and the Producer (how was the drawing produced?). The foci are further analysed using each of the three lenses in the model: Social (e.g. what can be said about the social situation of the drawing?), Aesthetic (e.g. what can be said about the aesthetics of the picture?) and Technological (e.g. what aspects of technology are depicted?). Together with conversations with the children and the use of teacher-researcher field notes each drawing was thus analysed using the 11 different aspects present in the model. Children exhibit huge variety, creativity and sociability even when all are given the same task. Given the findings, it is clear that we should never under-estimate the power of children’s drawings. I hope that using my model will aid a deeper understanding of children and their fascinating inner lives.
The key findings reported are that children use drawings to communicate with their peers, their teacher and their family, which enhances their own learning, and also acts as a social emollient. Entering into conversation with children about their drawings allows us to understand further, how children learn and interact in the classroom, and their drawings are crucial to this. By encouraging children’s use of imagination through drawing activities greatly increases participation and understanding of children, teaching and learning in complex and useful ways. This model can be effectively utilised in the classroom to deepen our understanding of children and their learning.
Dylan Adams and Gary Beauchamp
This paper explores how children’s music making outdoors involved interactivity with nature (Adams and Beauchamp, 2018). Children from five primary schools in South-East Wales made music in various outdoor rural locations. These activities were video-recorded and after their musical performances, the children were interviewed using video-stimulated reflective dialogue (VSRD) in semi-structured interviews. Their teachers also took part in semi-structured interviews, but without the use of VSRD. An iterative thematic analysis suggested that the children’s music-making had engendered an enhanced connectivity to nature. Evidence from the study is analysed with conceptions of musicking (Small, 1998) and Buber’s (1970) philosophy of dialogue. This analysis is synthesised with Gelter’s (2007) philosophy of “genuine frilutsliv” and Cajete’s (1999) “biophilic” approach to education to demonstrate that children’s music making outdoors can connect children with nature and “others” (Buber, 1970). A conceptual model is presented showing a progression leading to a sense of “communitas” (Turner, 1969).
In a globalised world, as communities become more diverse, teachers are required to facilitate increasingly diverse student cohorts. However, the Teacher Training Agency (2013) reports that many teachers feel under-equipped to do so. This is problematic given a rise in the number of people who admit to being racially prejudiced (British Social Attitudes Survey, 2013). Lander (2015) argues that teachers are ill-prepared and unsure about how to tackle racism; they receive very little training on race and have limited spaces for critical reflection around racism in initial teacher education. Likewise, Bhopal and Rhamie (2014) argue that lecturers on teacher training courses also lack the knowledge and confidence to support students through the process of learning about race, diversity and inclusion. Meanwhile, the issue of racism has become taboo, to the extent that many people fear to discuss the existence of race due to fears of looking racist (Leonardo, 2009). As the ability to work with diverse communities becomes ever more relevant, inability to talk about race can lead to feelings of disturbance that are difficult to articulate. Consequently, dealing with issues of racism in schools becomes challenging, when teachers do not feel they have the necessary experience and do not feel they can participate in a dialogue about things they find troubling. This presentation draws on my recent PhD research, which explores white teachers and pupils conceptualizations of race and anti-racist school practise in the predominantly white area of Devon. This area is gradually becoming more visibly diverse, in parts. Through interviews and observations of pupils’ engagement in art-based diversity projects, I found that in the context studied, approaches to racism tended towards prohibitive language and silencing discourses of colour-blindness. However, during the diversity project sessions pupils welcomed the opportunity to engage in dialogue about issues of race. I argue that silencing racist talk can help protect children from harm. However, silencing strategies can also mask racist attitudes rather than uproot and transform them. Furthermore, prohibitive strategies can silencing the dialogue necessary to work through troublesome issues of race. I explore the notion there is a need to move beyond silencing discourses to engage in dialogue about issues of race and racism. This may necessitate embracing feelings of discomfort, fear and risk that can arise through such dialogue (Shotwell, 2011), in the pursuit of developing effective anti-racist school practise.
Judith McCullouch, Sophie Ellis and Michael Hall
There are about 70,000 children from military service families who attend schools in every corner of the British Isles: their needs are of national relevance and importance. It is imperative that their education experiences and progression are addressed through an inclusive approach to education; one that extends efforts beyond recognised categories of special or additional needs so that attention is given to their distinct needs. To that end, this paper reflects on the initial and developing outcomes of research to investigate the progression to higher education of service children (McCullouch and Hall, 2016). It addresses questions on the identity characteristics of these children and the conceptualisation of their educational experience. We look beyond the bare facts of academic attainment and participation in higher education into the impact of identity and agency on educational progression and accordingly present the consequences for educators in engaging with the complex and distinctive realities and identities of service children, challenging stereotypes about both service children and disadvantage. Finally we emphasise the role of education, especially inclusive education, in enriching the identities and advancing agency of children from military families.
Existing research, quantitative data sets and literature have been reviewed and empirical data (through interviews and questionnaires) collected from school-age and undergraduates service children. Analysis was informed by the literature, secondary and primary data and viewed through the lenses of Bandura and Bourdieu concerning agency, identity and capital.
Service children seldom fit the normal deprivation factors; they are not generally regarded as educationally disadvantaged or underachieving. However, we found that children from military service families are under-represented in the higher education population (approx. 24% compared to 43%). For children from military families face intractable constraints, including frequent mobility and parent(s) on combat deployment, that result in a high risk of emotional, behavioural and attainment problems. Indeed, although these children are often adept at masking the impact of their loss of agency, eventually the effort of coping takes its toll, and university becomes less attainable or desirable. As Bandura et al. (2001) note, agency governs ambitions, purpose and supports resilience to daunting obstacles, creating momentum. As children from military families mature so raises their awareness related strongly to family habitus (Bourdieu, 1977), ingraining their cultural capital. Thus, we conclude that a lack of progression to HE by service children emerges as loss of agency.
This paper seeks to advance understanding of the educational experiences of young people who have been excluded from school, including their perceived successes and future aspirations.
The objectives were to:
1. Explore the student’s experience of schooling
2. Explore student views towards future aspirations
My research is centred on perceptions, consequently ‘acceptable data’ was the participant’s first-hand account of their experiences and life stories, which lends itself to a qualitative approach. The sampling I used was convenience sampling as I have established links with the PRU selected for this research as I am a Safeguarding Governor. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a Pupil Referral Unit with five students in Key Stage three and four. These lasted for around forty-five minutes. With the aim of building a relationship with the students before the interviews I also spent a day a week at the PTU for around two months and kept field notes.
Four salient themes from the results are ‘reintegration’, ‘relationships’, ‘career aspirations’ and bullying. Reintegration – When I asked the students if they wanted to go back into mainstream, all five stated that they did not. These responses clearly demonstrate that the aim of reintegrating PRU students into mainstream school, is not necessary shared by all children. Relationships – Teachers featured significantly in their responses. This suggests that the students perceive school as more than just a place to achieve qualifications; it is an environment where interpersonal relationships are formed. Career Aspirations – These findings demonstrate that the students do have ambitions and want to contribute to society. There is also a difference between what they would consider a ‘dream job’ and what job they have decided is more appropriate. Bullying – The students’ experience of bullying whilst in mainstream could be a contributing factor to their reluctance to return to mainstream I will consider the inclusion debate questioning is reintegration in the best interest of the student?
The duties of the sports coach have been traditionally modelled by sequential, rationalistically driven paradigms. Time-honoured practice has been steeped in regulatory controls that discipline participants, culminating in rigid approaches to teaching (Lyle, 2002; 2007). However, recent literature has reconceptualised the role of the sports coach as complex, contextual focusing on more holistic socio-pedagogical endeavours (Jones, 2007; Cassidy et al., 2009; Denison and Avner, 2011). A second key challenge facing the modern-day sports coach, is the revered ability to engage and motivate young people to the intrinsic values of sport (Holt, 2009; Holt and Talbot, 2013), thus reducing antisocial, and indeed sedentary behaviour, within young people (Johnson, 2013). Could caring instructors change behaviour through generating self-determination in order to motivate young people and stimulate self-actualising tendencies?
In this presentation I will disseminate the findings from my study which aimed to evaluate the ability of modern-day sports coaches to instil positive behaviour patterns in order to combat antisocial behaviour in young people. My sample consisted of two coaches and female rugby teams based in a community considered disadvantaged in South Wales. The data I will present was collected through extensive observations, interviews with the coaches and a semi-structured focus group with members of the rugby team. I will explore the challenges facing coaches to engage young people in sport, and the role of adaptive approaches, caring and constructive environments in promoting motivation and actualising tendencies.
Ultimately, I hope to demonstrate how person-centred approaches within practice formulate strong coach-athlete relationships, and that autonomy-supportive practice, targeted toward mastery achievement goals, engender positive outcomes in engagement and behaviour within young people.
Md. Monjur-e-Khoda Tarafdar
The traits of searching the truth, producing knowledge and its dissemination have the inextricable relationship with Universities. Autonomy and academic freedom corresponding to accountability are the core value concepts of university governance. The literature underpins that the relationships between these traits and values are debatable concerns amongst the academics and constituencies. Academic leaders are the pivots to influence the university governance progressively. This paper aims at presenting the aspect of perception of accountability of academic leadership as one of these core values in the context of university governance in Bangladesh. Literature underpins that the debate about meanings of autonomy, academic freedom, and accountability throughout the globe varied and context specific.
There has been a little literature about Bangladesh university governance relating to these core values. Having longstanding acquaintance in the field the researcher gains lived experience from the informants by the empirical study about the perception of accountability along with the other two value concepts of university governance – autonomy and academic freedom. To understand the complexities of perception and to acquire a sense of wholeness of the situation, multi-site case study approach was employed. The study was done with a strong sample size of seventy-four informants in three case public universities. The cases were different types of their governance structures – a general university, an engineering, and an open university. The qualitative multiple case study engages in-depth interviewing method of the members to belong to academics, administrators, civil society and policymakers to capture a wider range of views on perception. Open-ended semi-structured questionnaires have been used to comprehend the perception of autonomous accountability of the academics that impacts university governance in the context of Bangladesh.
The paper has interpreted the voices of the informants and distinguished style of academic leadership existed in the university settings against the changing higher education demography. The study finds comparative contextual dissimilarity in the perspectives of accountability of academic leadership towards university governance in three cases. Since accountability grows competitiveness and competence, the paper has focused on how academic leaders use their premises committing compromised standard of academic environment unaccountably. The study concludes that unaccountable academic leadership may cause for losing autonomous power resulted in collapsing academic excellence, while accountable leadership culturally bound with tradition promotes autonomous power.
International and transnational academic mobility is not a new phenomenon in the UK higher education (HE). However, little is known about the experience of migrant academics and the challenges and opportunities they experience as transnational academics. This paper discusses the insights from an analytic autoethnographic study that was designed within a social constructionist framework and narrative approach. It explored how the migrant academics perceive their academic journeys within the UK HE. Drawing on data from five narrative interviews with migrant academics in the UK, and the author’s autoethnographic narratives (2016-16) of being a migrant academic, this paper deconstructs the deficit construction of the migrant academic as the ‘support-seeking stranger’. The literature often presents migrant academics as cultural and academic strangers, struggling to adjust into UK HE, due to their inadequate prior pedagogic experience, values and academic behaviours that are not appreciated within the UK HE (Hsieh, 2012).
The themes emerged from template analysis revealed that the migrant academics’ experience encompass both similar and very distinct ways of being, thinking and relating to alternative epistemic views. Using their transnational academic capital, they sophisticatedly manipulate their identities (Amadasi and Holliday, 2018) by negotiating and managing the grand narratives about academic selfhood in the UK and their own personal narratives of being academics. This on-going, traumatic, complex process of identification disempowers and empowers them at the same time yet enabling agency within an increasingly marketized neoliberal system. Their openness to alternative thinking, agility and resilience allow them to shift their identities appropriately and plan and reach their targets.
The study sends key messages to policy makers, teachers and senior managers in the UK higher education with regards to the ways in which the migrant academics can be utilized as resources to advance the process of reciprocal internationalisation. It proposes that alternative thinking of alternative practices is an urgent need to move beyond the discourse of diversity to develop genuinely global universities (de Sousa Satos, 2012).
Dom Thompson and David Galloway
This project demonstrates how the principles of Joint Practice Development (JPD) (Fielding et al, 2005) have been applied when attempting to solve the issue of staff engagement with CPD. The culmination of this project was the Teachers Takeaway (www.teacherstakeaway.co.uk) which is an online platform showcasing instances of outstanding teaching, learning and assessment where staff from 3 local colleges; Havant and South Downs, Eastleigh and Fareham College have recorded 3-5 minute videos on various topics including management of learning, use of technology and embedding English and Maths. The collaborative nature of JPD (and also the outcome of the project) sought to break the “silo mentality” or as Schulman (1993) calls it “pedagogic solitude” via inclusive and effective relationships being built and this website is an example of how that can be achieved.
Dave Trotman, Stephen Griffin and Roger Willoughby
Education Studies programmes in undergraduate awards have typically had to contend with the multiple challenges of epistemological coherence, its (dis)connection to educational practice and trajectories of studentship in the study of the field. While the ‘discipline’ of Education Studies has typically drawn on aspects of history, psychology, philosophy and sociology of education, there has been an increasing horizonalisation of elements of study, to include hitherto marginally regarded fields, such as law, economics, journalism, and ecology. Little attention, however, has been given to the informing concepts in the study of education that not only underpin curriculum, but, moreover, frequently resurface throughout levels of student study. Based on a long and extensive history of teaching education studies with undergraduate students, the authors question the prevailing epistemology of ‘informing disciplines’ as a foundation for curriculum design and instead argue for a reconceptualization of the curriculum based on a menu of repeatedly appearing, interdisciplinary, cross-referenced concepts. In this paper the authors present the context and genesis of this rationale, the ramifications for curriculum design, teaching and studentship in education studies. In arguing for a context-sensitive conceptual framework, the authors address issues of intellectual progression and continuities in the study of the field as a critical educational endeavour.
Ciaran O'Sullivan, Suanne Gibson, Christie Pritchard and Andrew Grace
Issues surrounding transition and becoming student have been highlighted in research as troublesome (Merrill, 2015; Christie, 2009). Recent policy developments have resulted in student learning experiences that are not always positive (Burke, 2013; Morgan, 2013) indicating that students can feel ‘disempowered, lack confidence and feel completely unprepared for university study’ (Hirst, 2004: 70). They particularly struggle to ‘decode’ new and unfamiliar practices (Gourlay, 2009), and experience confusion and mixed messages regarding academic conventions, much of which is implicit or hidden within the curriculum. Rarely do we explore such experiences with our students, nor do we utilise, beyond formal settings, the peer and linked peer ‘resources’ that exist in terms of students’ critical reflections at key stages of their academic careers.
At the BESA 2016 Conference, we presented our initial findings from research into the process of ‘becoming student’. Having explored our own personal stories of this process, through a range of media, from poems to artwork and speech, we identified themes and questions for use in subsequent Focus Groups. Two Focus Groups were established, each comprised of between three and six undergraduate students from the Plymouth Institute of Education and two project members as facilitators. Each group was representative of the university’s diverse student body.
This paper, based on an article shortly to be published in Teaching in Higher Education, explores the stories that were shared and draws out findings which move research forward in this field. Such stories were perceived and experienced by the researchers as containing complex histories, intertwined with problematic systemic processes, which combined to create challenging, political, and diverse realities for students. The research aimed to gain further insight into these realities in order to better understand what ‘becoming student’ entails and how ‘student’ is positioned in Higher Education.
We will share our results and demonstrate how students consider the expectations on them imposed by wider agendas in HE and society, as well as the importance of the social side of their university experience. We conclude with advice for lecturers and tutors to help facilitate students as they negotiate these demands, the complex image of ‘student’ that they hold and the pressures this exerts. We will ask you to consider how this research may inform future practices, and how these could make transitions into the ‘student’ world more visible, shared and understood. In addition, we suggest a new emphasis for research with students, where a holistic approach to building trust and collegiality can lead to deeper insights from participants.
This research examines the close relationship between Montessori education and fine motor development deploying both observational research, and an autoethnographic review of personal experiences. The act of pouring is focussed upon as a key skill that should be mastered by many young learners. This skill was observed through several activities of pouring different materials in a progressive manner. Data was recorded regarding the time taken for participants to pour the material, as well as the amount transferred and spilt. A close examination of related literature is made, with studies identifying clear links between fine motor development and academic achievement. In addition to this discussion, specific use is made of the experiences witnessed whilst immersed within a Montessori setting; it was experiences similar to these that initially lead Montessori to found her pedagogy. The foundation for further discussion and investigation has been laid for considering the role that alternative forms of education, specifically Montessori, play in the mainstream education of society.
Caroline Lewis and Laura Hutchings
This research paper focuses on a small-scale trial undertaken with undergraduate Education Studies students into the integration of online learning through a virtual learning environment with traditional face-to-face delivery. Universities are well versed in the utilisation of VLE’s to provide additional support and information for students, however this research project has sought to extend this beyond the realm of an information repository and utilise this as a means of key content delivery.
Trial sessions were conducted with students from all levels of the programme with follow-up focus groups and questionnaires utilised to garner opinion as to the efficacy of the trial. While results have shown that there are clear benefits to the adoption of an enhanced focus on online learning from the perspective of student experience, there are also cautionary tales to note. The concept of collegiality is significant in the formation of bonds within student cohorts combined with the desire to ‘belong’ to a community of learners. As such, what online learning may offer in terms of efficiency and convenience requires balancing against the broader hidden curriculum offered as part of a traditional undergraduate experience. This paper not only seeks to provide a research-based perspective on the trial as noted but also offer a theoretical discussion on the increasing integration of online technology into higher education from a wider standpoint.
Joe Gazdula and Fozia Uddin
Changes in funding arrangements for UK Higher Education provision, has seen a marked increase in the number of Alternative Providers (AP’s). Fielden and Middlehurst (2017) cite BIS statistics to report Alternative Providers of Higher Education rose from 670 in 2013 to 732 in 2017 and describe AP’s as “a fast moving and complex group” (:4). This group includes; for profit providers, sub-degree colleges, generalist colleges serving both undergraduates and postgraduates, small specialist providers, not-for-profit colleges, for-profit distance learning providers, and overseas campuses. One third of these providers have less than 100 students. Many of these institutions work in partnership to offer higher level qualifications validated at traditional universities but others do not. While the offerings of institutions working in partnership with universities are seen as better than others, successive BIS Reports (2013, 2016) have reflected wider concerns taken up by Parliamentary Committees and the QAA (2016). These concerns and the implementation of the 2017 Higher Education and Research Act (DBIS, 2017) will provide significant challenges to validating Universities in terms of due diligence, management and oversight.
This paper takes an objectivist approach to investigating the challenges of managing Alternative Providers (AP’s). It extracts information from national and institutional archival data and a researched case study from a Northern UK University operating a broad spectrum of academic partnerships to form a discussion of the key aspects of successful partnership management.
Case study data was collected from 30 UK and international partners using a Likert style questionnaire based on an adaptation of Chou’s Five Determinants of successful partnership working (2012). This was followed up by 10 qualitative interviews with partners selected to represent the range of partnership types identified by Fielden and Middlehurst (2017). The institutional data is collected using a mixed methods approach and draws on partner experiences of working with the validating institution and to provide a conceptual model of oversight and management. The findings are developed into a proposed conceptual model of partnership working for discussion in which co-operative partnership working, alignment of business and education strategy, training, oversight systems and processes, communication and accessible support, play a prominent role.
University Ethical Procedures were followed in full during the collection of data and passed by the respective Research Ethics Committees.
Gemma Cherry, Allen Thurston and Jannette Elwood
This paper argues that including urban and rural location variables in research methodologies is imperative to gaining a fuller understanding of educational inequalities. Previous research investigating the influence of location on young people’s educational attainment often focuses on measuring poverty levels in urban communities and largely ignores the impacts of rural areas and comparisons between urban and rural locations. Five databases were systematically searched to identify literature investigating educational attainment disparities across urban and rural locations in the UK. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. This paper examines the available evidence in relation to how educational research defines urban and rural locations and presents findings relating to attainment disparities across urban and rural locations. The search procedures did not identify any studies conducted in the context of Northern Ireland or Wales, subsequently highlighting a significant gap in knowledge. This paper highlights that the field is immature and calls for further high-quality research to be conducted on the relationship between location and educational attainment; specifically research investigating disparities in attainment between and within urban and rural locations.
This study examines the other individuals involved in schools and classrooms who are not teachers or teaching assistants. Many terms exist for these individuals including external agents, providers and specialists. This is set within a policy background of government reports, Acts and initiatives from the early 1900s which contain invitations for these external agents to be involved in schools in England. Those invited include statutory agencies, military-style organisations, the voluntary sector, community members, parents, post-16 educational institutions and employers. The literature which examines the involvement of these external agents in schools does so from a narrow perspective, such as a specific agent type or policy initiative. In contrast, the aim is to identify the full range of agents involved across four case study schools through a broad approach in that it does not focus on a type of agent (e.g. employers); a specific initiative (e.g. extended schools) or period (e.g. 1960 to 2000). It adds to knowledge in terms of this broad approach to the identification of agents, against the approach taken in previously studies. The research involves the completion of a pro-forma by a staff member at each of the four case study schools to identify the external agents involved during one academic year. It also includes semi-structured interviews with school staff and external agents plus documentary analysis of school websites and reports. The findings indicate a high involvement of external agents in the schools, with trends of agent type being linked to government policies. There is a decline in agent involvement in relation to New Labour policies such as extended schools which set a duty on every school to work in collaboration to offer activities and services (e.g. extra-curricular activities). The agent involvement has shifted to the wider aspects of the curriculum (e.g. PSHE, careers) as opposed to the wider aspects of the school (e.g. community access). There was a ‘messiness’ in the identification of agents which resulted in just a ‘snapshot’ of the agent involvement. This is a consequence of insufficient staff knowledge related to their role, time in service or value they place on the capitals (e.g. financial, cultural) of the agents. There is a disconnection between some agent perceptions of their relationship to the school and the inclusion in the data and a suggestion that some agents are involved as a tick-box exercise. In these cases, it does not appear to matter who the agent is, just what they can deliver, which poses questions over quality.
In the final chapter of Emily Brontë’s novel, Wuthering Heights, the reader is presented with an idyllic denouement: flowers bloom in the garden among the fruit trees; open windows reveal a fire in the hearth; and Cathy Linton is giving a reading lesson to Hareton Earnshaw. Through an idealised vision of education, he is being transformed from his previous condition as an illiterate brute. This scene provides a glimpse of education as a highly valued and valorised endeavour, necessary for a happy and civilized society.
Using this nineteenth century novel as a case study, this session uses literary criticism to examine and understand the meaning of education and the value placed upon it. I draw upon notions of binary oppositions developed within the critical theory of Levi-Strauss and Derrida. This will provide insights into the social construction of education within the context of rapid industrialisation, urbanisation and changing social, cultural and political relationships. Comparisons will be made with constructions of education within other nineteenth-century novels and within other cultural artefacts.
Cathal OSiochru, Catherine O'Connell and Namrata Rao
Research and teaching metrics loom large over the landscape of UK higher education. Measurements of research and teaching quality are not exactly new in UK HE but it is hard to find many parallels with the level of reform to both research and teaching evaluation systems which has occurred over the past 24 months. Amid a research discourse which characterizes the spread and impact of these metrics using metaphors of illness or pathology, our research takes a critical stance, examining the nature of these evaluation systems and the potential for organisational and individual practices to either amplify or mediate their effects.
To some, the metrics are a curse and clear sign of the declining “health” of the academy; to others they are just another system to be learned or “gamed” to their own advantage. Drawing on Durkheim’s metaphor of a social pathology, we examine the ways in which academics negotiate or accommodate their professional practices and priorities in response to the various teaching and research metrics. This has lead our research to examine how conceptualisations of professionalism in HE could be an important factor influencing individual responses to metrics.
In this presentation we will present data collected through surveys and interviews involving 109 academics based in Education related departments (e.g. Ed Studies, SEN, and Early Childhood) in universities across the UK. Based on their accounts we aim to demonstrate that patterns of response to the metrics that we have identified reflect a deeper difference in how these various academics conceptualize their professional identity. You may even recognize your own reaction in one or more of these patterns (Are you an Adam, a Barbara or a Carol? Come along and find out…)
Ultimately we will take a critical look at the pathology metaphor itself. If we see research and teaching metrics as being “unhealthy”, we have to consider who are they unhealthy for? What may be healthy for the individual or institution may be unhealthy for their discipline or colleagues. However you feel about metrics, love them or loath them, we hope our talk will offer you an insight and maybe even a new perspective with which we can all interrogate our own reaction to metricization.
This topic will form a chapter in an undergraduate textbook to be published early Spring 2019.
Dual and multiple exceptionality (DME) is becoming a significant topic in the field of SEN. There has been much research into supporting and teaching for special needs, but a number of these individuals often have high ability in other aspects of their learning and vice versa. Thus, this high ability is frequently masked by the presence of a learning difficulty, disability or disorder and causes underachievement in school and life.
Often these individuals are functioning at a similar level to their peers although but the giftedness is missed.
Common difficulties seen alongside giftedness include:
dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia
auditory and visual processing disorders
sensory processing disorders, including dyspraxia
non-verbal learning disorder.
Key points will address issues such as:
Identifying a DME child
How to spot a DME child in the classroom
Supporting a DME child’s strengths and special needs
A potential strategy to support the DME child in school
The proposed presentation asks the question: What is most important to education reform from the perspective of reform participants? This presentation hopes to contribute to debates about the success or failure of international aid to education reform represented by technology transfers of evidence-informed policies and practices. The first section provides a succinct description of Singapore – a developed nation — and the Philippines – a developing nation. The second describes the education reform partnership between the two nations. The third describes the explanatory mixed methods research design employed in order to explore the participants’ perceptions of the reform initiative. The fourth and final section contextualises the response to what is most important to education reform from the perspectives of the participants themselves including a critique of evidence-based reform.
The paper reports on an on-going study examining masters-level students grappling with academic language, and their resulting ‘becomings’ in academic roles through classroom language encounters. The novel methodology utilises various Deleuzian concepts diffractively (Barad, 2007; Lenz Taguchi, 2012) to provoke alternative thoughts around the assumptions and expectations inherent in learners’ academic language encounters.
Confronting academic language expectations and assumptions of communicative competency, masters students are often caught between the roles of student-researcher-academic. This experience reportedly generates a changing sense of self in their ‘becoming academic’. The question central to this paper is how the ‘academic becoming’ of masters students is embodied in their classroom language encounters. As will become apparent, much of this embodiment takes the form of ‘resistance’.
Issues regarding academic language is a well-researched area claiming a vast amount of literature, often dominated by conventional discourse analysis practices. This paper will demonstrate how using an unorthodox methodology can provoke alternative thoughts and new discussions, away from previously held concepts of language in education. By “reading insights through one another” (Barad, 2007, p. 25), diffraction helps to rupture the rigidity of previously held thoughts. Troubling these notions then enables new and alternative ideas about masters students’ ‘becomings’ in the progression of their studies. In doing so, the paper considers expectations and assumptions on students’ communicative competency through diffracting the concepts of assemblage, minor & major language, and (de/re)territorialization (Deleuze & Guattari, 1984). Thinking through these theories, the paper exposes how language acts as an intensity in classroom events (Deleuze & Guattari, 1984). Untangling the workings of this phenomenon, alternative notions of how learners ‘become academic’ are illustrated and new perspectives are provoked.
Through this methodology, the emergent analysis has already yielded some interesting implications. It has been observed that there is a paradoxical relationship between resistance to reading and group at masters level, and students then retrospectively citing reading and group work as the basis for deepening their understanding in their studies. The paper will detail how diffracting data fragments through the Deleuzo-Guattarian concepts above has enabled the research to uncovered this ‘resistance’ as an embodied force of transition in masters students.
The research will contribute to the theoretical and empirical research literature on academic language. It could also help to promote further understanding in Masters students’ relationship to group work and reading, known issues in the field of higher education research.